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Safety alert - Asbestos in brakes of manual hand pallet trucks


This safety alert provides information about imported brake shoes of manual hand pallet trucks that have been found to contain asbestos.


In May 2020, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission was alerted to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in the brake shoes of manual hand pallet trucks, and manual high-lift pallet trucks, imported between 2009 and 2015. This information related to the wheel systems supplied from China to an overseas manufacturer of pallet trucks and then imported into Australia. Users of this equipment in Australia have been contacted as part of a recall by the importer, for removal of the affected brakes. It is possible that other manual hand pallet trucks with identical brake systems originating in China also contain asbestos.

Product description

A manual hand pallet truck (or pallet jack) is a hand operated forklift with a hydraulic system used to move, lift and lower pallets, typically in a warehouse environment. The pallet truck is steered by a wheel at the rear, controlled by tiller-like hand lever which also serves as the pump handle for raising the forks, while a small handle on the lever is pulled to lower the forks. The affected mechanism is a tiller parking brake system with fully enclosed brake shoes within the wheel assembly. Asbestos was located in the brake lining of the shoes as shown.

Asbestos in imported products

While asbestos has been prohibited in Australia since December 2003, in some countries it is still used in manufactured products. Certification of asbestos-free goods from some overseas manufacturers has been found not to meet Australian requirements. The importation, manufacture, supply, sale and use or reuse of asbestos and asbestos-containing products is not permitted, except under very limited circumstances. Some supplier countries may classify goods with low levels of asbestos as ‘asbestos-free’. In Australia, any level of asbestos is prohibited for import or use.

Risk control

The design of these types of manual hand pallet trucks usually negates the need for maintenance during the life of the equipment. During normal and proper use, there should be no discharge of asbestos as the brake shoes are fully enclosed. However, if the brakes are repaired, serviced or replaced, there is a risk of exposure to asbestos during the disassembly of the brake shoes. Owners or users of Chinese manufactured manual hand pallet trucks that have concerns about their equipment are advised not to undertake any maintenance, repairs or modifications of the wheels. They should contact the Australian supplier for clarification or seek the guidance of an asbestos professional.

Testing requirements

Under work health and safety legislation, the duty is on the importer and supplier to ensure materials they are importing and supplying do not contain asbestos. Customers can reasonably expect the supplier to provide evidence (as outlined below) that the materials do not contain asbestos.

If you import any items, it is your responsibility to have the items (and components of the items) tested for asbestos content so you can demonstrate that they are asbestos free.

If the imported product has a risk of containing asbestos, the Australian Border Force will require assurances that the product and its component parts do not contain asbestos. If assurance is not provided, you will face delays and be responsible for costs incurred when the product is held at the border for sampling and testing. Importers should be familiar with the information on the ABF website.

The only certain way of assuring a product does not contain asbestos is for a sample to be analysed by a laboratory accredited for asbestos identification. Australian accredited laboratories can be found at the NATA website.

In Australia, samples are to be sent to a laboratory that is NATA accredited for asbestos testing and conforms to the following:

  • Accredited for compliance with ISO/IED:17025.
  • Uses test method AS 4964-2004 for the qualitative identification of asbestos in bulk samples by polarised light microscopy (PLM) including dispersion staining techniques.
  • Accredited by NATA for the above method, noting the following:
    • AS 4964 will adequately identify crocidolite, amosite and chrysotile asbestos if present in the samples.
    • However, AS 4964 states - samples of tremolite, actinolite and anthophyllite show a wide range of optical properties and cannot be equivocally identified by PLM and dispersion staining.
    • This means that while the laboratory should be able identify if mineral fibre/s are present, it may not be able to identify if the fibre is tremolite, actinolite and anthophyllite asbestos.

Therefore, the laboratory carrying out the analysis must provide a test analysis certificate that:

  • includes a statement that the laboratory complies with ISO/IED:17025, is accredited by NATA for the method used and state the test method used, and
  • states if asbestos is present, including the type of asbestos, or
  • states no asbestos detected (NAD) when no asbestos has been detected, and
  • also state the limit of detection of the analytical method, and
  • states if unknown mineral fibre/s were identified, and
  • has a batch number or unique identifier such as a serial number to identify the goods or materials tested.

If the test analysis is uncertain regarding asbestos content and/or unknown mineral fibres were identified, you must either:

  • assume asbestos fibres are present and manage the product as an asbestos containing material
  • have the samples analysed using a confirmation technique such as electron microscopy that will identify unknown mineral fibre/s and XRD analysis that will determine the chemical composition of the unknown mineral fibre/s.

Managing the risk of asbestos in imported products

The Preventing goods or materials containing asbestos being supplied to workplaces in Queensland includes information on:

  • how the importation of asbestos is regulated at the Australian border and the products at particular risk of containing asbestos
  • what businesses must do to ensure imported products do not contain asbestos
  • types of verifications that exist for Australian importers or consumers to show imported materials do not contain asbestos
  • acceptable standards for testing if materials contain asbestos.

Contact your WHS regulator

Jurisdiction Regulator Contact details Website
QLD Workplace Health and Safety Qld 1300 362 128
QLD Qld Gov Asbestos page 13 74 68
ACT WorkSafe ACT 02 6207 3000
ACT Asbestos Awareness
ACT Government
13 22 81
C’wealth Comcare 1300 366 979
NSW Safework NSW 13 10 50
NT Worksafe NT 1800 019 115  
SA SafeWork SA 1300 365 255
SA SA Gov Asbestos page 1300 365 255
TAS Worksafe TAS 1300 366 322
VIC Worksafe VIC 1800 136 089
VIC Vic Gov Asbestos page 1800 136 089
WA WorkSafe WA 1300 307 877